Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Official Title

A Phase III Randomized Trial for Newly Diagnosed High Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) Testing Clofarabine (NSC# 606869) in the Very High Risk Stratum

Summary:

This randomized phase III trial is studying how well combination chemotherapy works in treating young patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is likely to come back or spread. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) and giving the drugs in different doses and in different combinations may kill more cancer cells.

Trial Description

Primary Outcome:

  • Comparison of DFS of children with HR B-ALL receiving post-Induction age adjusted ITT on an MBFM-IMHDM backbone compared to age adjusted IT MTX
  • DFS of children, adolescents, and young adults with VHR B-ALL between arms
Secondary Outcome:
  • Increase of greater than or equal to 65% of 5-year DFS and less than 10% induction mortality in patients with DS and HR B-ALL treated with modified Induction and post-Induction therapy regimen with MBFM-IMIDM
  • OS rate for HR B-ALL patients
  • OS rate for VHR B-ALL patients
  • Percentage of VHR-ALL patients randomized to control versus experimental arms that attain MRD less than or equal to 0.01% upon recovery from consolidation
  • Toxicity and tolerability of Experimental arm and Control arm in patients with VHR B-ALL
  • Toxicity and tolerability of MBFM-IMIDM in children with Down syndrome
  • Toxicity and tolerability of post-induction age-adjusted ITT compared to age-adjusted IT MTX in children with HR B-ALL
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:
I. To determine if the administration of post-Induction age-adjusted intrathecal triple therapy (ITT) on a Modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (MBFM) interim maintenance (IM) high-dose methotrexate (IMHDM) backbone will improve 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of children with high-risk (HR) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) compared to age-adjusted intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). II. To determine, in a randomized fashion, if the cyclophosphamide + etoposide containing regimen (Experimental Arm 1) will improve the 4-year DFS of children, adolescents, and young adults with very high-risk (VHR) B-ALL compared to a modified MBFM-IMHDM regimen that contains a second IM (Control Arm). SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:
I. To determine the toxicity and tolerability of post-Induction age-adjusted ITT compared to age-adjusted IT MTX in children with HR B-ALL. II. To determine the toxicity and tolerability of Experimental Arm 1 compared to the Control Arm in children, adolescents, and young adults with VHR B-ALL. III. To determine whether a single-arm, modified Induction with limited anthracycline exposure and post-Induction therapy regimen with MBFM-IMIDM and reduced vincristine (vincristine sulfate)/steroid pulse frequency and enhanced supportive care in children with Down syndrome (DS) and HR B-ALL will result in a >= 65% 5-year DFS and < 10% Induction mortality. IV. To determine the toxicity and tolerability of MBFM-IMIDM in children with DS and HR B-ALL. V. To estimate overall survival (OS) rates both overall and by regimen a) for HR B-ALL and b) VHR B-ALL patients. VI. To determine the incidence of osteonecrosis (ON), defined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and to characterize the natural history of clinically silent ON in children, adolescents, and young adults 10 years of age and greater and to assess the role of drugs (i.e., asparaginase and methotrexate) in addition to corticosteroids, in the risk for development of ON. VII. To determine if the prevalence of cognitive deficits measured by CogState, in children (ages 6 to 11 years) with HR- and VHR B-ALL at 1 year off therapy, is significantly higher than the normative population (> 14%) in the following domains: working memory, executive function, visual motor, processing speed, and visual attention. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:
I. To determine if the reduction of minimal residual disease (MRD) from end-Induction to end-Consolidation is greater for children, adolescents, and young adults with VHR B-ALL receiving Experimental Arm 1 compared to the Control Arm. OUTLINE:

INDUCTION THERAPY: Patients without Down syndrome receive induction chemotherapy comprising cytarabine intrathecally (IT) on day 1; vincristine sulfate intravenously (IV) over 1 minute on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; daunorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-15 minutes on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; dexamethasone orally (PO) or IV twice daily (BID) on days 1-14 (patients under 10 years old) or prednisone PO or IV BID on days 1-28 (patients at least 10 years old); pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4; and methotrexate IT on days 8 and 29 (plus days 15 and 22 for CNS3 patients). Treatment continues for 56 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. CONSOLIDATION THERAPY: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. ARM I HR B-ALL CONSOLIDATION (C): Patients receive consolidation therapy comprising cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on days 1 and 29; cytarabine IV over 1-30 minutes or subcutaneously (SC) on days 1-4, 8-11, 29-32, and 36-39; mercaptopurine PO once daily (QD) on days 1-14 and 29-42, methotrexate IT on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 15, 22, 43, and 50; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on days 15 and 43. Patients with continuing clinical evidence of testicular leukemia undergo radiation therapy (RT) QD, 5 days a week, for approximately 2½ weeks (12 fractions total). Treatment continues for 56 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM II HR B-ALL C: Patients receive Consolidation therapy as in Arm I HR B-ALL C. Patients also receive ITT comprising methotrexate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, and cytarabine on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. Patients with testicular leukemia also undergo RT as in Arm I HR B-ALL C. INTERIM MAINTENANCE THERAPY: ARM I HR B-ALL INTERIM MAINTENANCE (IM): Patients receive IM therapy comprising vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 15, 29, and 43; high-dose methotrexate IV over 24 hours on days 1, 15, 29, and 43; leucovorin calcium PO or IV on days 3-4, 17-18, 31-32, and 45-46; methotrexate IT on days 1 and 29; and mercaptopurine PO on days 1-56. Treatment continues for 63 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM II HR B-ALL IM: Patients receive ITT on days 1 and 29 and IM therapy as in Arm I HR-ALL IM. Treatment continues for 63 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. DELAYED INTENSIFICATION THERAPY: ARM I HR B-ALL DELAYED INTENSIFICATION (DI): Patients receive DI therapy comprising vincristine sulfate IV over 1 hour on days 1, 8, 15, 43, and 50; dexamethasone PO or IV BID on days 1-7 and 15-21; doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-60 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15; methotrexate IT on days 1, 29, and 36; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on days 4 and 43; cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; cytarabine IV over 1-30 minutes or SC on days 29-32 and 36-39; and thioguanine PO QD on days 29-42. Treatment continues for 56 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM II HR B-ALL DI: Patients receive ITT on days 1, 29, and 36 and DI therapy as in Arm I HR B-ALL DI. MAINTENANCE (M) THERAPY: ARM I HR B-ALL M: Patients receive maintenance therapy comprising vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 29, and 57; methotrexate IT on day 1 (also day 29 of courses 1-4); prednisone PO BID on days 1-5, 29-33 (may receive methylprednisolone IV if PO is not tolerated), and 57-61; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-84; and methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78. Treatment repeats every 12 weeks for 2 years (females) or 3 years (males) in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM II HR B-ALL M: Patients receive ITT on day 1 (also day 29 of courses 1-4) and maintenance therapy as in Arm I HR B-ALL M. Treatment repeats every 12 weeks for 2 years (females) or 3 years (males) in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. VERY HIGH-RISK B-ALL: Patients are randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms. CONSOLIDATION THERAPY PART I: In all arms, patients receive cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 1; cytarabine IV or SC on days 1-4 and 8-11; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-14; methotrexate IT on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 (days 1 and 8 only for CNS3 patients); vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 15 and 22; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 15. Patients with continuing clinical evidence of testicular leukemia undergo RT QD, 5 days a week, for approximately 2½ weeks (12 fractions total). Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. CONSOLIDATION THERAPY PART II: ARM A VHR B-ALL C (CONTROL ARM): Patients receive consolidation therapy comprising cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; cytarabine IV over 1-30 minutes or SC on days 29-32 and 36-39; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 29-42; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 43 and 50; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 43. Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM B VHR B-ALL C (EXPERIMENTAL ARM): Patients receive consolidation therapy comprising cyclophosphamide IV over 15-30 minutes on days 29-33; etoposide IV over 60-120 minutes on days 29-33; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 43 and 50; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 43. Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM C VHR B-ALL C: Patients receive clofarabine IV over 2 hours on days 29-33 and consolidation therapy as in Arm B VHR B-ALL C. (Closed as of 9/12/2014) INTERIM MAINTENANCE I: In all arms, patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 15, 29, and 43; high-dose methotrexate IV over 24 hours on days 1, 15, 29, and 43; leucovorin calcium PO or IV on days 3-4, 17-18, 31-32, and 45-46; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-56; and methotrexate IT on days 1 and 29. Treatment continues for 63 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. DELAYED INTENSIFICATION PART I: In all arms, patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 8, and 15; dexamethasone PO or IV BID on days 1-7 and 15-21; doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-60 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15; methotrexate IT on day 1; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4. Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. DELAYED INTENSIFICATION PART II: ARM A VHR B-ALL DI (CONTROL ARM): Patients receive DI therapy comprising cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; cytarabine IV over 15-30 minutes or SC on days 29-32 and 36-39; thioguanine PO QD on days 29-42; methotrexate IT on days 29 and 36; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 43 and 50; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 43. Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM B VHR B-ALL DI (EXPERIMENTAL ARM): Patients receive DI therapy comprising cyclophosphamide IV over 15-30 minutes on days 29-33; etoposide IV over 60-120 minutes on days 29-33; methotrexate IT on days 29 and 36; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 43 and 50; and pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 43. Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. ARM C VHR B-ALL DI: Patients receive clofarabine IV over 2 hours on days 29-33 and DI therapy as in Arm II B VHR B-ALL DI. (Closed as of 9/12/2014) INTERIM MAINTENANCE II: In all arms, patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute and methotrexate IV over 2-5 minutes (undiluted) or 10-15 minutes (diluted) on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on days 2 and 22; and methotrexate IT on days 1 and 31. Treatment continues for 56 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. MAINENTANCE THERAPY: Patients with CNS3 disease at diagnosis undergo RT QD over 4 weeks (10 fractions total). In all arms, patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 29, and 57; prednisone PO BID on days 1-5, 29-33, and 57-61 (may receive methylprednisolone IV if PO is not tolerated); methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78 (except on methotrexate IT days); mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-84; methotrexate IT on day 1 (also day 29 of courses 1 and 2 for CNS patients who did not undergo RT). Treatment repeats every 12 weeks for 2 years (females) or 3 years (males) in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicities. INDUCTION THERAPY: All patients receive cytarabine IT on day 1; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1 and 8, dexamethasone PO or IV BID (patients under 10 years old) or prednisone PO BID (patients at least 10 years old) on days 1-14 (may receive methylprednisolone IV if PO is not tolerated), pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4; methotrexate IT on day 8; and leucovorin calcium PO on days 10-11. Treatment continues for 14 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Rapid early responders (RER): Patients receive induction therapy comprising vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 15 and 22; dexamethasone PO BID or prednisone PO BID on days 15-28; methotrexate IT on day 29 (also days 15 and 22 for CNS3 patients); and leucovorin calcium PO on days 31-32 (also days 17-18 and 24-25 for CNS3 patients). Treatment continues for 14 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Slow early responders (SER): Patients receive daunorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-15 minutes on day 15 and Induction therapy as RER patients. Treatment continues for 14 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. CONSOLIDATION THERAPY: All patients receive cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on days 1 and 29; cytarabine IV over 1-30 minutes or SC on days 1-4, 8-11, 29-32, and 36-39; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-14 and 29-42; vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 15, 22, 43, and 50; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on days 15 and 43; methotrexate IT on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 (days 1 and 8 only for CNS3 patients); and leucovorin calcium PO on days 3-4, 10-11, 17-18, and 24-25. Patients with continuing clinical evidence of testicular leukemia undergo RT QD, 5 days a week, for approximately 2½ weeks (12 fractions total). Treatment continues for 56 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. INTERIM MAINTENANCE THERAPY: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 15, 29, and 43; intermediate dose methotrexate IV over 24 hours on days 1, 15, 29, and 43; leucovorin calcium PO or IV on days 3-4, 17-18, 31-32, and 45-46; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-56; and methotrexate IT on days 1 and 29. Treatment continues for 63 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. DELAYED INTENSIFICATION THERAPY: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on days 1, 8, 15, 43, and 50; dexamethasone PO BID or IV on days 1-7 and 15-21; doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-60 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on days 4 and 43; cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; thioguanine PO QD on days 29-42; cytarabine IV over 1-30 minutes or SC on days 29-32 and 36-39; methotrexate IT on days 1, 29, and 36; and leucovorin calcium PO on days 3-4, 31-32 and 38-39. MAINTENANCE THERAPY: Patients with CNS3 disease undergo RT QD, 5 days a week, for 2 weeks (10 fractions total). Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV over 1 minute on day 1; prednisone PO BID or IV on days 1-5 (may receive methylprednisolone IV if PO not tolerated); methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO QD on days 1-84; and methotrexate IT on day 1 (also day 29 of courses 1-4 for CNS3 patients who did not undergo RT). Treatment repeats every 12 weeks for 2 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up periodically for 10 years.

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