Risk-Adapted Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Standard-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Localized B-Lineage Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Official Title

Treatment of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Standard Risk B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) or Localized B-Lineage Lymphoblastic Lymphoma (B-LLy)

Summary:

This partially randomized phase III trial studies different combinations of risk-adapted chemotherapy regimens and their side effects and comparing how well they work in treating younger patients with newly diagnosed standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia or B-lineage lymphoblastic lymphoma that is found only in the tissue or organ where it began (localized). Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy), giving the drugs in different doses, and giving the drugs in different combinations may kill more cancer cells.

Trial Description

Primary Outcome:

  • Determination of whether less intensive therapy will maintain DFS >= 95% for LR patients randomized to 1 of 2 low-intensity regimens
  • Determination of whether the 5-year DFS in AR patients is adversely affected by the reduced pulses in maintenance
  • DFS for B-LLy patients
  • DFS for Down syndrome patients
  • Improvement in DFS from 93% to 96% in AR patients based on the methotrexate randomization
Secondary Outcome:
  • Burden of therapy in AR patients overall at different time points during and at the end of therapy
  • Burden of therapy in AR patients randomized to every 4-week vs every 12-week pulses during maintenance therapy
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:
l. To determine if a maintenance regimen containing weekly oral methotrexate at 40 mg/m^2/week will result in an improved disease free survival (DFS) compared to that containing weekly oral methotrexate at 20 mg/m^2/week in the average-risk (AR) subset of patients with standard-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). II. To determine whether a reduced-pulses maintenance regimen with vincristine (vincristine sulfate)/dexamethasone pulses delivered every 12 weeks can be used without adversely impacting DFS as compared to pulses given every 4 weeks in the AR subset of patients with standard risk B-precursor ALL. III. To confirm that patients in the low-risk (LR) subset of standard risk B-precursor ALL, based on clinical and cytogenetic features and minimal residual disease (MRD) criteria, can attain a 5 year DFS of at least 95% with either a P9904 based regimen that includes 6 courses of intermediate dose (1 g/m^2 over 24 hours) methotrexate without alkylating agents or anthracyclines (Arm LR-M), or an outpatient based regimen identical to that of AR patients with reduced vincristine/dexamethasone pulses at 12 week intervals during maintenance (Arm LR-C). IV. To provide standardized treatment and enhanced supportive care to children with standard-risk (SR) Down syndrome-ALL in order to improve outcomes and facilitate further study of this biologically and clinically unique patient subgroup. V. To improve understanding of the biology of localized B-lineage lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LLy) and Down syndrome (DS) B-LLy by obtaining biologic data, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for recurrent cytogenetic lesions on paraffin specimen, and banking tissue for future research. VI. To describe the 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) of patients with Murphy stage I and II B-LLy receiving modified AR B-ALL therapy. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:
I. To assess the burden of AR B-ALL therapy as measured by surveys of the child's quality of life, missed days of school/daycare/work by children and parents, family functioning, parental perception of the child's health vulnerability, physical functioning, and emotional distress, 1) overall at different time points during and at the end of therapy, and by 2) comparing children randomized to every 4 week vs. every 12 week dexamethasone/vincristine pulses during maintenance. (Closed to accrual as of April 19, 2013) II. To characterize the onset, severity, and natural history of vincristine associated neuropathy by physical therapists (or occupational therapists) in children undergoing therapy for AR B-ALL, 1) overall at different time points during and at the end of therapy, and by 2) comparing children randomized to every 4 week vs. every 12 week dexamethasone/vincristine pulses during maintenance. (Closed to accrual as of March 15, 2013) TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:
I. To explore the correlation of minimal marrow disease (MMD) at diagnosis and outcome for patients with B-LLy. OUTLINE:

All patients receive induction therapy comprising intrathecal (IT) cytarabine on day 1; vincristine sulfate IV on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; dexamethasone orally (PO) or IV twice daily (BID) on days 1-28; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4; and IT methotrexate* on days 8 and 29. Patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive disease are eligible to transfer to COG-AALL0622 by day 15 of induction therapy and patients with high-risk (HR) or very high-risk (VHR) disease are eligible to transfer to a COG HR or VHR trial at the end of induction therapy. Patients with standard-risk disease with Down syndrome (DS) who have bone marrow minimal residual disease 0.01% are eligible to transfer to the DS stratum of the HR trial. Patients with induction failure (defined as M3 [> 25% lymphoblasts] on day 29) may be eligible for the COG VHR-acute lymphoblastic leukemia study. NOTE: *Patients with DS also receive oral leucovorin calcium every 12 hours on days 10-11 and 31-32. STANDARD-RISK WITH DOWN SYNDROME: Consolidation therapy (4 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-28; IT methotrexate on days 1, 8, and 15; and leucovorin calcium PO every 12 hours on days 3-4, 10-11, and 17-18. Interim maintenance I therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV and methotrexate IV over 2-15 minutes on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41; IT methotrexate on day 31; and leucovorin calcium PO every 12 hours on days 36-34. Delayed-intensification therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive dexamethasone PO or IV BID on days 1-7 and 15-21; vincristine sulfate IV and doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-15 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4; cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; thioguanine PO on days 29-42; cytarabine IV over 1-15 minutes or subcutaneously (SC) on days 29-32 and 33-39; IT methotrexate on days 1 and 29; and leucovorin calcium PO every 12 hours on days 3-4 and 31-32. Interim maintenance II therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV and methotrexate IV over 2-15 minutes on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41; IT methotrexate on days 1 and 31; and leucovorin calcium PO every 12 hours on days 3-4 and 33-34. Maintenance therapy: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-5; methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-84; and IT methotrexate on day 1. Courses repeat every 12 weeks for 2 years (timed from the start of interim maintenance I therapy). AVERAGE-RISK: Consolidation therapy (4 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-28; and IT methotrexate on days 1, 8, and 15.Interim maintenance I therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV and methotrexate IV over 2-15 minutes on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41 and IT methotrexate on day 31. Delayed intensification therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive dexamethasone PO or IV BID on days 1-7 and 15-21; vincristine sulfate IV and doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-15 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4; cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; thioguanine PO on days 29-42; cytarabine IV over 15-30 minutes or SC on days 29-32 and 36-39; and IT methotrexate on days 1 and 29. Interim maintenance II therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV and methotrexate IV over 2-15 minutes on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41 and IT methotrexate on days 1 and 31. Maintenance therapy: Patients are randomized to 1 of 4 maintenance therapy treatment arms. Arm A: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on days 1, 29, and 57; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-5, 29-33, and 57-61; methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-84; and IT methotrexate on day 1. Arm B: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on days 1, 29, and 57; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-5, 29-33, and 57-61; higher-dose methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-84; and IT methotrexate on day 1. Arm C: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-5; methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-84; and IT methotrexate on day 1. Arm D: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-5; higher-dose methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-84; and IT methotrexate on day 1. In all arms, maintenance therapy courses repeat every 12 weeks for 2 years for girls and for 3 years for boys (timed from the start of interim maintenance I therapy). LOW-RISK: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. Arm I (LR-M): Consolidation therapy (19 weeks): Beginning one week after completion of induction therapy, patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on days 15, 22, 78, and 85; methotrexate IV over 24 hours and IT methotrexate on days 8, 29, 50, 71, 92, and 113; leucovorin calcium PO or IV on days 9-10, 30-31, 51-52, 72-73, 93-94, and 114-115; dexamethasone PO BID or IV on days 15-21 and 78-84; and PO mercaptopurine on days 1-133.Maintenance therapy: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on days 1 and 8; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-7; methotrexate* PO on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78, 85, 92, 99, and 106; and mercaptopurine PO on days 1-112. Courses repeat every 16 weeks. Patients also receive IT methotrexate on days 1 and 85 (courses 1 and 4), day 57 (courses 2 and 5), or day 29 (courses 3 and 6). Patients then receive course 7 comprising vincristine sulfate IV on days 1 and 8; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-7; methotrexate PO on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, and 64; and mercaptopurine PO on days 1-70. Treatment continues for 2 and ½ years (timed from the date of diagnosis).NOTE: *Patients do not receive methotrexate PO on the days that they receive IT methotrexate. Arm II (LR-C): Consolidation therapy (4 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; oral mercaptopurine on days 1-28; and IT methotrexate on days 1, 8, and 15. Interim maintenance I therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV and methotrexate IV over 2-15 minutes on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41 and IT methotrexate on day 31. Delayed-intensification therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive dexamethasone PO or IV BID on days 1-7 and 15-21; vincristine sulfate IV and doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-15 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15; pegaspargase IV over 1-2 hours on day 4; cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 29; thioguanine PO on days 29-42; cytarabine IV over 1-15 minutes or SC on days 29-32 and 36-39; and IT methotrexate on days 1 and 29.Interim maintenance II therapy (8 weeks): Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV and methotrexate IV over 2-15 minutes on days 1, 11, 21, 31, and 41 and IT methotrexate on days 1 and 31. Maintenance therapy: Patients receive vincristine sulfate IV on day 1; dexamethasone PO BID on days 1-5; methotrexate PO on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, and 78; mercaptopurine PO on days 1-84; and IT methotrexate on day 1. Courses repeat every 12 weeks for 2 years for girls and for 3 years for boys (timed from the start of interim maintenance I therapy). After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up periodically for 10 years.

View this trial on ClinicalTrials.gov

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